Wed, 18 June 2014
SCVA June 2014 Podcast: Pathophysiology of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Current Strategies for the Prevention and Treatment of Anemia, Coagulopathy, and Organ Dysfunction
The techniques and equipment of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have evolved over the past 60 years, and numerous numbers of cardiac surgical procedures are conducted around the world using CPB. Despite more widespread applications of percutaneous coronary and valvular interventions, the need for cardiac surgery using CPB remains the standard approach for certain cardiac pathologies because some patients are ineligible for percutaneous procedures, or such procedures are unsuccessful in some. The ageing patient population for cardiac surgery poses a number of clinical challenges, including anemia, decreased cardiopulmonary reserve, chronic antithrombotic therapy, neurocognitive dysfunction, and renal insufficiency. The use of CPB is associated with inductions of systemic inflammatory responses involving both cellular and humoral interactions. Inflammatory pathways are complex and redundant, and thus, the reactions can be profoundly amplified to produce a multiorgan dysfunction that can manifest as capillary leak syndrome, coagulopathy, respiratory failure, myocardial dysfunction, renal insufficiency, and neurocognitive decline. In this review, pathophysiological aspects of CPB are considered from a practical point of view, and preventive strategies for hemodilutional anemia, coagulopathy, inflammation, metabolic derangement, and neurocognitive and renal dysfunction are discussed.
To view the article, click here.
Direct download: SCVA_June_2014.mp3
Category:Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia -- posted at: 7:23pm EST